Technical glass processing

Strengthening Process. Increase Toughness, Control Fractures.

We make use of different strengthening processes in order to adapt glass, as a versatile, high-tech material, to its respective intended use. Touchening produces systematic mechanical stress in the material which has a positive effect on the proporties of the glass. We process the glass by different strengthening methods depending on the field of application.

Tempered safety glass

Tempered safety glass consists of a single, specially thermally treated panel. The glass is heated to ca. 600 °C and then cooled suddenly. The center of the glass pulls back from the glass surface, which is being compressed. This process gives TSG an increased resistance to shocks and impacts. It is not sensitive to large changes in temperature and breaks into small, blunt pieces when exposed to extreme pressure. This reduces the risk of injury.

Production of safety glass by thermal tempering

Production of safety glass by thermal tempering

Semi-tempered glass (STG)

STG is exposed to a thermal tempering process just like TSG. However, the cooling process is slower, which results in less of a tension difference in the glass between the center and the surface. The resistance to bending lies somewhere between that of standard float glass and tempered safety glass. If broken, the resulting pieces resemble those of normal, non-hardened float glass.

Chemical Strengthening

If glass is exposed to a defined salt bath treatment, the resulting exchange of ions within a thin surface layer creates strong compressive stress that significantly improves the resistance properties of the glass. The chemical strengthening process is used primarily to strengthen thin glass up to 3 mm in thickness. The chemical strengthening process is ideal because the surface retains its flatness while also becoming more resistant to scratching.

Properties of tempered glasses at a glance

PropertiesStone impact resistance
FLOAT Glass Untreated No change
TSG Tempered Safety GlassNo change
STG Semi Tempered GlassNo change
CSG Chemically Strength­ened Glass~ +40 %
PropertiesFlexural strength
FLOAT Glass Untreated ~ 45 N/mm²
TSG Tempered Safety Glass~ 120 N/mm²
STG Semi Tempered Glass~ 70 N/mm²
CSG Chemically Strength­ened Glass> 150 N/mm²
PropertiesTempera­ture shock resistance
FLOAT Glass Untreated ~ 40 K
TSG Tempered Safety Glass~ 150 K
STG Semi Tempered Glass~ 100 K
CSG Chemically Strength­ened Glass> 200 K
PropertiesCutting capability
FLOAT Glass Untreated Yes
TSG Tempered Safety GlassNo
STG Semi Tempered GlassNo
CSG Chemically Strength­ened GlassConditional
PropertiesAppearance of fracture
FLOAT Glass Untreated Splitting
TSG Tempered Safety GlassFriable structure
STG Semi Tempered GlassSplitting
CSG Chemically Strength­ened GlassSplitting
FLOAT Glass Untreated Rissbild Floatglas
TSG Tempered Safety GlassRissbildung Thermisch vorgespanntes Glas
STG Semi Tempered GlassRissbildung Thermisch teilvorgespanntes Glas
CSG Chemically Strength­ened GlassRissbildung Chemisch vorgespanntes Glas

Glass Untreated

Tempered Safety Glass
Semi Tempered Glass
Chemically Strength­ened Glass
Stone impact resistance No change No change No change ~ +40 %
Flexural strength ~ 45 N/mm² ~ 120 N/mm² ~ 70 N/mm² > 150 N/mm²
Tempera­ture shock resistance ~ 40 K ~ 150 K ~ 100 K > 200 K
Cutting capability Yes No No Conditional
Appearance of fracture Splitting Friable structure Splitting Splitting
  Rissbild Floatglas Rissbildung Thermisch vorgespanntes Glas Rissbildung Thermisch teilvorgespanntes Glas Rissbildung Chemisch vorgespanntes Glas


Contact our specialists

Please choose your contact partner:

Vera Hopfenziz
Technical Glass and Touch Modules
Phone +49 791 93295-26
Fabian Schmidt
Technical Glass and Touch Modules
Phone +49 791 93295-82
Miranda Stender
Technical Glass and Touch Modules
Phone +49 791 93295-83
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Data sheets

Technical glass production
Data sheet

Chemical Strengthening

Data sheet

Thermal Tempering

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Berliner Glas KG Herbert Kubatz GmbH & Co.
Weidenhalde 20, 74523 Schwäbisch Hall, Germany

Phone +49 791 93 295-0
techglas [at]

Berliner Glas Herbert Kubatz GmbH & Co. KG Syrgenstein
Giengener Strasse 16, 89428 Syrgenstein-Landshausen, Germany

Phone +49 9077 95 895-0
syrgenstein [at]

Contact details